There are different forms of governments in the world like, monarchy, democracy and dictatorship. Every government should have a good administrative system or machinery to levy and collect taxes, maintain law and order, to administer justice and to implement various schemes, for effective administrative machinery was felt, in the ancient days also.
There were excellent administrative set up even at the village level, in India in the ancient days. Similarly the Romans gad ab excellent administrative set up. similarly also the British, french and the Greeks. However the nature of recruitment and appointment to the various posts, were more on hereditary basis than on any other consideration, in those days.
The duties of the Governments in the ancient days were limited to the extent of providing security to the people, and defending the country from foreign invasion. A small and selected administrative machinery was sufficient in those days but the science and technology have changed the entire set up of the society. The living conditions of the people have improved considerably. The provisions of hospitals, educational institution, accommodation, highways and transport etc. Have became the primary duty of any modern government. As a result, the administrative machinery has not only to be geared up to meet the demand but also transformed to suit the modern conditions.
The administrative machinery has therefore been divided into a number of departments like civil administration, police, education. health, engineering and judiciary etc. In the present days. The qualifications have been prescribed for every one of the posts each department along with the procedure for recruitment and appointment to those posts. The service commissions recruiting boards have been constituted in all the countries, to recruit the persons, for the various posts in the different departments. They have been accorded status free from governmental interference and security of tenure to the members forming the board with a view to ensure that the recruitment is made impartially without fear or favour. These bodies conduct examinations. interviews and select the suitable candidates to the various posts grades.
The modern administrative system has become much more important in these days of the decorative governments. The representatives elected by the people need not necessarily have neither administrative experience nor talent. The representative so elected therefore have to depend mainly on the administrative machinery to discharge their duties, in their elected offices as ministers.